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Modern Art Glossary

For those interested in Modern Art but still not familiar with all the day to day terms used by galleries we have produced this list of definitions. We hope you find them useful. If there are any art terms not listed which you know of or would like answered please email us and we will try and help.

ABSTRACT - Art which departs from real subjects and representational accuracy in preference to shapes, colour and texture. This form of British Art is sometimes referred to as non-representational art.

ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM - New York painting movement of the 1940's with its artistic roots based upon Abstract Art. This type of painting is often referred to as action painting.

ACADEMICIAN - An elected member of an academy, or an artist who follows the principles of the traditional and conservative academic tradition. British Artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery who are Academicians include: Simon Garden and Moira Huntly

ACADEMY - Originally the school of philosophy founded by Plato in the garden of Academe, a district in the vicinity of Athens. Today means a learned Art Group recognised as being authoritative in its discipline, or a school in which art is taught. British Art term usually refers to a recognised society involved in the promotion of the arts. The British Royal Academy of Arts was established in 1768. Today it serves primarily as an art school and venue for regular Art exhibitions.

ACCENT - where an artist highlights specific parts of a painting and in the process creates in them more attention.

ACRYLIC - Rapidly drying paint used by artists. Acrylic is made from synthetic materials that are water soluble while wet but once dried and cured become tough and flexible. The paint is long-lasting with good colour fastness and has little or no fumes. British Artists favour Acrylic Art when a painting is going to hang in public areas where people might touch the painting or it might be exposed to dust. British Artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery and specialising in Acrylic paintings include: Sylvia Antonsen

Sylvia Antonsen

ACTION PAINTING - where artists use vigorous physical activity to create paintings usually on a large abstract style.

AERIAL PERSPECTIVE - Painting technique used to reproduce real life vistas - makes distant objects appear to have less colour, texture, and distinction.

AESTHETIC - art term relating to beauty and beautiful

ANALOGOUS COLOURS - colours which are close to one another in the colour spectrum

ARA - Associate of the Royal Academy (ARA). The Royal Academy is an independent British fine arts institution founded in 1768. It supports contemporary artists and promotes the arts through education work and exhibitions. The RA Summer Exhibition is a hugely popular show of contemporary art. Red Rag artists who regularly appear in the RA Summer shows include: Dawn Sidoli and Stephen Brown

ARCA - Associate of the Royal Cambrian Academy(ARCA). Founded in 1826 the RCA claims no one knows what the true definition of Welsh Art is, but if it exists, it can be seen at the Royal Cambrian Academy.

ARPE - Associate of the Royal Society of Painters and Etchers (ARPE) . Founded in 1880 as Society of Painter- Etchers and later enlarged to include Engravers, the RPE was granted a Royal title in 1888. The RPE includes various kinds of artist prints in its exhibitions and elects artists working in any of the various printmaking media.

ART CONSERVATION - The preservation and protection of art works from physical deterioration, to keep them as close as possible to their original form. For Red Rag advice on Art prevention see looking after your British Art

ART DECO - Art style popularised in the 1920s and 30s. Art Deco utilised modern materials and the art style was characterised by repetitive, geometric lines, patterns and curves.

ART GALLERY - Public and/or private organisations or buildings where works of art are displayed. There are hundreds of British Art Galleries. Major regions for art galleries are: Cotswolds Art Galleries, Gloucestershire Art Galleries, Cornwall Art Galleries and London Art Galleries. Leading British art collections include: the London Art Galleries: National Gallery, National Portrait Gallery and the Tate Gallery ; and the Ashmolean, Oxfordshire Art Gallery and the Fitzwilliam Museum Cambridgeshire Art Gallery

ART NOUVEAU - Art style based on organic forms featuring swirling shapes and curves

ART RESTORATION - The repair of artworks, and returning art to as close as original condition as possible. Art prevention is better than cure - for advice from Red Rag Gallery see looking after your British Art

ARWS - Associate of the Royal Watercolour Society (ARSW). The Art Society has the proud distinction of being the first institution anywhere in the world to specialise in watercolours, and in its Victorian heyday it inspired similar Artist organisations throughout Europe. As the first body of artists to both secede from the Royal Academy and establish an independent identity for itself, it set a precedent for many other British art societies.

AVANT-GARDE - French term meaning at the forefront. Art which is innovative and producing new ideas and subject matter. First appeared in France during nineteenth century and is usually credited to Henri de Saint-Simon. He believed in the social power of the arts and regarded artists, alongside scientists and industrialists, as the leaders of a new society.

The term Avant-garde art began around the 1850s with the Realism of Gustave Courbet. He was strongly influenced by early socialist ideas. Successive art movements such Cubism and Surrealism built upon the idea. Avant-Garde today is closely associated with the term Modern Art particularly when artists work is seen as high on originality.

BEAUX-ARTS - A school of fine arts located in Paris which stressed the necessity of academic painting.

BEESWAX - Art material made from from honeycombs, used as a medium in modelling and in wax varnishes.

BINDER - Used to ensure particles of pigment stick to one another in artist paint such as Oil or Acrylic

BM - Founded in 1753 The British Museum (BM) holds in trust for the nation and the world a collection of art from ancient and living cultures. Housed in an architectural British landmark, the collection is one of the finest in existence, spanning two million years of human history. Access to the collections is free.

BRITISH IMPRESSIONISM - The French Impressionist artists Daubigny, Monet, and Pissarro spent considerable time living and painting in London. But the development of British Impressionism revolved around - an American, James McNeill Whistler. He introduced the British to Impressionism in the early 1860's after moving from Paris. Other British artists that Whistler encouraged in this new art form were Sickert, Scott, Steer and Roussel. The development of British Impressionism was further promoted with the founding of the New English Art Club (NEAC) in 1886.

BRITISH SURREALISM - Founded in 1936 the British Surrealist group leading figures were David Gascoyne, Paul Nash, Roland Penrose and Herbert Read. In 1947 the British Surrealist group combined with their French counterparts. Red Rag British surrealist artists include: Simon Garden, and David Schofield

David Schofield

BRONZE - An alloy of copper and tin used by Artists for sculpture.

CANVAS - Fabrics that are prepared and used for painting. They maybe in panels, stretched on frames, or obtained by the yard. Art canvas varies from very fine such as the linen type used by Red Rag Gallery artist Sylvia Antonsen to the more textural canvas preferred by James Watt.

CANVAS TRANSFER PRINTS - This technique simulates the rich texture and appearance of an original oil painting It is an intensely detailed process whereby the image of a painting is chemically 'lifted' off and transferred onto an artist canvas. Red Rag Prints are produced using rigid quality standards and meticulous attention to detail ensuring the ink retention, paper removal, and bonding are successful and the art work remains true to the original and is guaranteed by the artist.

CASTING - The method by which Artists produce Sculptures. Liquid materials such as clay, bronze and plastic are poured into a mold and allowed to cool and harden. The material is transformed into the shape of the mold. British Artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery and using this process include: Stuart Anderson , Margaret Lovell and Guy Portelli.

CERAMICS - Hard glasslike compound. Ceramics are made by exposing clay to extreme heat in a kiln. The result is earthenware and stoneware art pieces.

CHIAROSCURO - The dramatic use of light and shadow to create a mood or a focal point in a painting.

COLLAGE - A painting technique used by artists where groups of different textured materials or objects are glued together to make a work of art.

COLOUR WHEEL - Circular presentation of colours based on colour theory where relationship of colours to one another is displayed

COMPOSITION - the design and organisation of individual components to produce a piece of Art. The term typically applies to two dimensional Art where balance and proportion are essential.

CONCEPTUAL ART - Art which is intended to communicate an idea or concept where the concept or idea and process is of greater importance than any tangible result and therefore does not have necessarily involve the creation or appreciation of a traditional art object such as a painting or sculpture.

CONSERVING ART - The preservation and protection of art works from physical deterioration, to keep them as close as possible to their original form. For Red Rag advice on Art prevention see looking after your Irish Art

CONTEMPORARY ARTIST - The term contemporary artist applies to all British Art being undertaken now. Generally it refers to any British Art made from around the 1960s to the present, or after the end of the modern art period. All Red Rag paintings are obtained from British Contemporary Artists who are living artists.

CONTEMPORARY BRITISH ART - Generally defined as British Art which was produced from the second half of the twentieth century upto today.

CUBISM - Influential art movement of the twentieth century. Cubism was begun by Pablo Picasso (1882-1973) and Georges Braque (1882-1963) in 1907. They were inspired by African sculpture, and by painters Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) and Georges Seurat (1859-1891), and by the Fauves. In Cubism the subject matter is broken up, analyzed, and reassembled in an abstracted form. Picasso and Braque initiated the movement following advice from Cezanne, who said artists should treat nature "in terms of the cylinder, the sphere and the cone."

DADA - An early twentieth century art movement which emerged during the First World War. Rather than supporting a specific art style of its own Dada ridiculed traditional art forms and contemporary culture. Dada artists produced art works which were considered deliberately nonsensical.

EARTHENWARE - Ceramic ware made from clay fired in the kiln at the lowest temperature ranges.

EDITION - In print making the number of images authorized by an Artist of a painting made from a single plate.

EN PLEIN AIR - "in the open air" is a term describing paintings that have been undertaken outdoors rather than in the Artist's studio. Plein air painting was taken up by the English painters John Constable (1776-1837) and it became common place for Impressionists painters. Its popularity was aided by the development of easily portable painting equipment and materials, including paints sold in tubes. British Artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery and painting en plein air include: Andrew Macara and John Martin .

Andrew Macara

ENGRAVING - Method used by printmakers to create images on hard wood or metal surfaces by using a burin (sharp tool)

ETCHING - The earliest print graphic. The artist draws, using a sharp tool referred to as a burin, on the surface of a copper or zinc plate. Each plate is coated with an acid-resistant varnish, or "ground". As the artist draws - ground and varnish is removed leaving an image on the plate from which the print is made.

The plate is dipped in acid, which reacts with the soft, exposed metal, creating grooves or sunken channels, which will hold the ink. Ink is then applied onto the plate filling the grooves. The surface is wiped clean and the inked plate pressed onto moist paper, releasing the ink and creating the image in monotone. In most cases, the plate is then defaced or destroyed preventing the creation of any additional prints.

EXPRESSIONISM - A concept of painting in which traditional adherence to realism and proportion is secondary to the artist's emotional response to the subject.

F - Fellow. The term is most often used in an art context to mean : part of an elite group of learned people who work together as peers in the pursuit of art. However, there are no precise rules for how the title is used, and each academic and art institution grants the title as it sees fit.

FAUVISM - Painting style of early 20th century. The word means 'Wild Beast'¯, so called because of the use of bold, clashing and vibrant colours. Henri Matisse and AndrĆ© Derain were leading artists known for this type of painting. The Fauve movement was a major influence in the paintings of the early Scottish Colourists.

FIGURATIVE - Figurative is a term used to refer to any form of modern or contemporary art that retains strong references to the real world. It is used to describe Landscape and Architectural painting subjects, but more often it is associated with the human figure. In a general sense figurative also applies retrospectively to all art before abstract art.

FINGER PAINTING - Painting where an artist applies paint using the hand rather brush or palette knife. Typically applied to strong non-absorbent paper which does not smear.

FIRING - A process of applying heat to pottery or sculpture in a kiln or open fire.

GENRE - Genre painting is Art that depicts subjects and scenes from everyday life, ordinary people and common activities. Also a type of painting can be identified by the Genre ie the genre of the painting is Landscape , Marine

GESSO - An under-painting medium consisting of glue, plaster of Paris, or chalk and water. Gesso is used to size the canvas and prepare the surface for painting. Red Rag Scottish Artist Jock MacInnes paintings are undretaken on Gesso boards.

Jock MacInnes

GICLEE - (Pronounced: Zhee-clay) Considered an original graphic, Giclee prints are produced as multiples. Red Rag Limited Edition Prints are normally limited to 100 or 195. The term originates from the French "to spray" and employs inkjet colour application and digital colour separation. Giclee is a computer controlled, fine art print making process. It uses millions of ink particles in a very fine spray, about 15 microns in size which is four times smaller than a human hair. The microscopic jet-stream spray is applied simultaneously to the paper and is controlled by a crystal frequency. The print is then coated with up to 15 layers of waterproof U.V. varnishes.

The result is a fine art print with flawless colour reproduction and extraordinary consistency

Red Rag artists with art works in Giclee prints include: Richard Adams and Michael Kidd

GOUACHE - A heavy, opaque watercolour paint, sometimes called body colour, producing a less wet-appearing and more strongly coloured painting than ordinary watercolour. British Artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery and using Gouache include: Susan Brown

HARD-EDGE PAINTING - A style adopted by recent contemporary artists where the forms are shown with precise, geometric lines and edges

HERRINGBONE PERSPECTIVE - is where lines of projection converge not on a vanishing point but on a vertical axis at the centre of the painting or drawing.

IMPASTO - The thick textured build up on the surface of a painting which is produced by an Artist when repeated application of paint is applied.

IMPRESSIONISM - Art style developed in France where artists like Degas, Monet, Pissaro and Renoir painted images of their subjects showing the effects of colour, sunlight and shade on things at different times of day. The artists dissected light into its component colours. Each artist concentrated on light and the way it effected the visible world. Short brush-strokes of bright colour were chosen to represent light which was then broken down into its spectrum components and re-combined by the eyes into another colour when viewed at a distance. Current British Artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery and painting in this style include Romeo di Girolamo.

KILN - Furnace used by Artists for firing pottery and sculptures. Typically temperatures range from 1000 ' 1200 degree centigrade.

KINETIC ART - An art style which contains and incorporates movement as part of the art piece.

LANDSCAPE - Categorisation for artist paintings that predominantly features natural scenery rather than figures, architecture or other objects. British Artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery and specialising in Landscape paintings include: Stephen Brown , Andrew Macara, Stephen Outram and Rex Preston

LIMITED EDITION PRINT - Limited Edition Prints are images which are taken from original paintings and then reproduced in a specified quantity typically using Giclee or Litho Print techniques. All Red Rag Limited Edition Prints are signed the artist and individually numbered. British artists who have art works in Limited Edition Print include: Stephen Brown, David Cobley, Simon Garden, Peter Heard, John Knapp Fisher and John Lines

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE - is a technique used by artists in painting and drawing to create an illusion of spatial depth on a two dimensional surface. The artist uses consistent geometric rules to make objects appear as they do to the human eye. For example: parallel lines appear to converge in the distance although in reality they do not; or lines of buildings are angled inward to make them appear to be going back into space. The recognition of linear perspective dates from the 15th century and is attributed to Filippo Brunelleschi's use of perspective painting.

LINOCUT PRINTMAKING - Linocut is a printmaking technique in which a sheet of linoleum is used for the releif surface. A design is cut into the linoleum surface with a specialist tool. The raised (uncarved) areas representing a reversal (mirror image) of the parts to show printed. The lino sheet is then inked with a coated roller and pressed onto paper.

LITHOGRAPH - This printing technique uses a planographic process in which prints are pulled on a special press from a flat stone or metal surface. The surface has been chemically sensitised so that ink sticks only to the design areas, and is repelled by the non-image areas. Lithography was invented in Solnhofen, Germany by Alois Senefelder in 1798. The early history of lithography is dominated by great French artists such as Daumier and Delacroix, and later by Degas, Toulouse-Lautrec, Picasso, Braque and Miro.

MEDIUM - The material used by Artists to create a painting or sculpture artwork. For example: Oil, Acrylic, Mixed Media, Watercolour, Bronze.

MEDIUM - The term is used widely. Firstly to describe the material used by an Artist to produce an art work. Secondly it can be a binder for paint eg oil. And thirdly can used to describe art such as drawing, sculpture and painting

MINIMALISM - A Mid 20th Century style of painting and sculpture. The finished piece of art is reduced to a minimum number of lines, colours and shapes. Space and relationship of the elements are key in the art work.

MIXED MEDIA - Art term used to describe works made from different media. The use of mixed media began around 1912 with the Cubist collages and constructions of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. Essentially art can be made of anything or any combination of things, but British Mixed Media Art is mostly associated with contemporary paintings of oil paint with newspaper, card or wood. British artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery and specialising in Mixed media painting include: Susan Brown

Susan Brown

MODERNISM - An Art style that breaks with traditional art forms and searches for new modes of expression (early 20th century).

MONOCHROMATIC - In a contemporary painting the colour scheme that involves using different degrees of a single colour.

MONOPRINT - A one off kind of art print made by painting on a sheet of glass or metal, then transferring the still-wet painting to a sheet of paper. Sufficient original paint remains on the plate after the transfer so that the same or different colours can be re-applied to make subsequent prints, but no two prints are ever exactly alike.

MURAL - A continuous painting which is designed to fill a wall or other architectural area.

NEAC - New English Art Club

NEOCLASSICISM - New Expressionism was an Art style applied to 19th century Western Art. It reflected the classical art works of Greece and Rome. Paintings have well defined images, deliberate composition and utilize cool understated colours.

NEW WAVE - Combination of cartoon, graffiti and performance art in a minimalist, unsophisticated style.

NEWLYN - The Newlyn School of Cornish artists were initially led by Stanhope Forbes and Frank Bramley in the early 1880s. Newlyn art combined the Impressionist approach of painting directly from the subject, and where appropriate in the open air (plein-air), with subject matter drawn from rural life, particularly the life of the fishermen. One of today's Newlyn artists is

John Piper

NPG - National Portrait Gallery (NPG). Founded in 1856 to collect portraits of famous British men and women, the art collection represents the most comprehensive of its kind.

NPS - National Portrait Society

OFFSET LITHOGRAPH - Offset Lithograph has become the most widely used commercial printing process for art prints. This is a method of printing from a metal or stone surface on which the printing areas are made ink-receptive. Rather than pressing inked images onto paper using plates with raised or etched plates, an image is transferred to the paper using oil-based inks, chemically-treated plates made from photographic negatives, and an offset cylinder. Today the field of signed and numbered offset lithographs has become accepted in the art market and many have proved a reasonable British Art Investment.

Artists who Red Rag Gallery sell in prints include: Stephen Brown, David Cobley, Simon Garden, Peter Heard, John Knapp Fisher, and Archie Dunbar McIntosh

OIL PAINTINGS - A slow drying paint made when pigments are mixed with an oil. Linseed oil is the most traditional component. The oil dries with a hard film, and the the colours are protected. Oil paints are usually opaque and traditionally used on canvas. They can have a matt or glossy finish. British Artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery and specialising in Oil paintings include: David Cobley, Charles Hardaker, Red Rag Scottish artist Alma Wolfson uses this technique.

PASTEL - A medium made from gum and water, which when pressed into a dried stick form produces crayons. Chalk is similar to pastel, but more tightly bound. British Artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery and who paint using Pastels include: Moira Huntly .

Moira Huntly

PERSPECTIVE - The way artists create an illusion of a three dimensional image onto a two dimensional painting or drawing. Art techniques used to achieve perspective are: ensuring variation between dimensions of scenes, placing images that are on the ground as lower when nearer and higher when deeper. There are three major types of perspective: aerial, herringbone, and linear.

POINTILLISM - The art of Pointillism is a form of painting in which tiny dots of primary-colours are used to generate secondary colours to produce a luminous quality. Pointillism is focused on the specific style of brushwork used to apply the paint. The term "Pointillism" was first used with respect to the work of George Seurat, and he is the artist most closely associated with the art term. Pointillism is considered to have been an influence on Fauvism.

POP ART - An art style derived from commercial art forms. Typically paintings and sculptures are larger than life replicas of day to day subjects. Pop Art developed in the late 1950s and was characterised in the 1960s by such artists as Andy Warhol, Claus Oldenberg, Roy Lichtenstein, George Segal, and Robert Indiana.

PP - Past President

PROVENANCE - Provenance is the record of all previous ownership of a painting or work of art. Ideally this should cover the time it left the artist's studio to the present location, so there is evidence of unbroken ownership history. All Red Rag British and Scottish art and paintings are sourced directly from the Artists studio.

PS - The Pastel Society (PS) was founded in 1898 and is widely recognised for the promotion and development of pastel painting. There are over 50 artist members who are professional British artists using Pastels. The PS President is Red Rag Gallery artist Moira Huntly .

RA - The Royal Academy is an independent British fine arts institution founded in 1768. It supports contemporary artists and promotes the arts through education work and exhibitions. The RA Summer Exhibition is a hugely popular show of contemporary art. Red Rag featured artists who regularly appear in the RA Summer shows include: Charles Hardaker,Ken Howard, Dawn Sidoli and Stephen Brown

Charles Hardaker

RAKU - Technique used by Sculptors to produce porous low-fired ceramic ware. The finished art pieces are characterised by subtly changing colours, over which the Sculptor has little control.

RBA - Royal Society of British Artists. Red Rag British Art Gallery artists who are RBA members include: Stephen Brown , Charles Hardaker, Judith Gardner, Romeo di Girolamo, Andrew Macara, John Martin, Steven Outram, Barbara Richardson and Tom Wanless

RBC - Royal British Colonial Society of Artists

RBS - The Royal British Society of Sculptors (RBS) is a membership art society for professional sculptors. Founded in 1904 by eminent artists of the day. The RBS aims to: promote and advance the art of sculpture; ensure a widespread understanding and involvement in contemporary sculpture; and promote the pursuit of excellence in the art form and its practice. Red Rag artists who are members include: Margaret Lovell

RBSA - Royal Birmingham Society of Artists. Red Rag British artists John Lines and Simon Davis are RBSA members. Romeo di Girolamo is an honary RBSA member.

RCA - Member of the Royal Cambrian Academy

RCamA - Royal Cambrian Academy

REALISM - Art style which evolved in the 19th century where a painting produced a view of the natural world in a highly representational way. Subjects were selected from everyday events and situations.

REPRESENTIONAL - Art works reflecting the real world

RESTORING ART - The repair of artworks, and returning them to as close to original condition as possible. Prevention is always better than art repair - for advice from Red Rag see looking after your British Art

RMS - Royal Society of Miniature Painters

ROI - The Royal Institute of Oil Painters or ROI, as it is known, has been a leading British Art society for over a century. Founded in 1882 it is the only major art society showing paintings exclusively in oils. It was granted its royal status in 1909 by King Edward VII. Red Rag Artist Martin Caulkin is a member

RP - The Royal Society of Portrait Painters (RP) aims to promote, maintain, improve and advance education in the Fine Arts and in particular to encourage the appreciation, study and practice of the art of portraiture. Red Rag British Artists who are members include: David Cobley

David Cobley

RPE - Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers

RSMA - Royal Society of Marine Artists - The RSMA has represented the finest in British contemporary marine art for nearly 60 years. The Art featured is of the sea and everything connected with it and artist members' interpretations are as wide and varied as the subject.

RWA - Royal West of England Academy

Red Rag British Art Gallery Artists who are members of the RWA include: Richard Dack, Margaret Lovell, Dawn Sidoli

RWS - The Royal Watercolour Society has the proud distinction of being the first art institution anywhere in the world to specialise in watercolours, and in its Victorian heyday it inspired similar Artist organisations throughout Europe. As the first body of artists to both secede from the Royal Academy and establish an independent identity for itself, it set a precedent for many other British societies.

SCULPTURE - A three dimensional art form. Artists use a variety of materials to produce sculptures including wood, metal and clay.

St IVES SCHOOL - Although artists had visited St Ives for many years it was not until the establishment of a pottery by Bernard Leach and Shoji Hamada in 1920's that the town started to become known for 20th-century art. The early development of St Ives as an artists' colony is attributed to Alfred Wallis, Ben Nicolson and Christopher Wood. Later the artists Barbara Hepworth and Naum Gabo moved to the town before the emergence of artists Terry Frost, Patrick Heron, Peter Lanyon and John Wells

Current Cornish artists who show at Red Rag include John Piper and Colin Orchard

John Piper

STILL LIFE - Arrangement of subjects typically flowers, fruit and tableware. The organisation and relationship of the objects to one another together with contrasting colours and shapes provide interest. British Artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery and specialising in Still Life art include: Tobias Harrison and Dawn Sidoli.

STRAINER - The canvas of most contemporary paintings is secured to a wooden frame that is commonly referred to as a strainer or stretcher. Strainers are equipped with expandable corner joints that can be adjusted to insure that the painting remains taught. The joints can be expanded by driving small wooden wedges into the interior corners of the strainer at the back of the painting.

STRETCHER - The canvas of most contemporary paintings are secured to a wooden frame that is commonly referred to as a stretcher or strainer. Stretchers are equipped with expandable corner joints that can be adjusted to insure that the painting remains taught. The joints can be expanded by driving small wooden wedges into the interior corners of the stretcher at the back of the painting.

STUCKISM - Stuckism is a radical art movement which seeks to promote Figurative Painting and against Conceptual Art. Stuckism values self-expression and adopts a holistic approach to art.

SUREALISM - A movement in literature and the visual arts that developed in the mid 1920s. Based upon revealing the subconscious mind in dream and hallucinatory images, the irrational, and the fantastic. A painting style that focuses on compositions with images often in unrelated or unexpected situations. Paintings can have dream and fantasy like aspects. Surrealism took two directions: representational and abstract. Surrealist British Artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery include: Simon Garden and David Schofield

SWA - The Society of Women Artists (SWA) was established in 1855, to give talented women artists an opportunity to exhibit their work. The British based Society continues to encourage variety and versatility and has some of the finest contemporary women artists, from all over the world, sustaining a reputation for excellence.

TEMPERA - A traditional painting medium which requires the Artist to make-up his paints each day using egg yolk as a binder.

TWASI - The Wildlife Art Society International (TWASI) was founded in 1992 with the purpose of promoting a greater appreciation of the wildlife art genre, the animals, plants and wild places which provide the stimulus and inspiration for all such work. The Society acts as a forum for contemporary wildlife artists, providing opportunities for them to share their common interests and raise their individual profiles through Society exhibitions and other events.

VISUAL ARTS - Visual Arts are all art forms which are primarily visual in nature as opposed to other arts eg performing arts. Visual Arts includes: painting, sculpture and photography.

British Arts have historically viewed fine arts, painting, sculpture and printmaking as different to the craft areas of applied art, design, jewellery and textiles. This is difference is attributed to the work of a group of artists led by William Morris known as the Arts and Crafts Movement whose political aim was to value all art forms. The movement was at odds with modernists who wished to keep high arts from the masses by keeping them esoteric.

VP - Vice-President

WATERCOLOURS - Any paint that uses water as a solvent. Paintings undertaken using this medium are known as watercolours. What carries the pigment in watercolor (called its medium, vehicle, or base) is gum arabic. British Artists showing at Red Rag Modern British Art Gallery and specialising in watercolour paintings include: Susan Brown and Colin Kent

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